Dalton's Atomic Theory



डाल्टन का परमाणु सिद्धांत (Dalton's Atomic Theory)

daaltan ka paramaanu siddhaant vigyaan ke prati utsaahit logon ke lie shodh ka sabase mahatvapoorn vishay raha hain. vaigyaanikon aur daarshanikon ne hamesha vastuon ko saral banaane kee koshish rahee hain. ve un moolabhoot kanon ke baare mein jaanate the jo padaarth, sanrachana,unake gun banaate hain. 

Dalton's Atomic Theory of history


 demokritas pahala vyakti tha jisane prastaavit kiya ki padaarth kanon se bana hain. unhonne in kanon ka naam etamos diya jisaka arth "avibhaajy kan " yah demokritas ka paramaanu siddhaant tha. lekin takaneekee kamee ke kaaran vaigyaanikon ko is siddhaant par bahut seemit jaanakaaree thee. lagabhag 2000 varshon ke baad jon daaltan ne san 1808 mein jon dardan naam ke british skool adhyaapak ne paramaanu kee vyaakhya karane ke lie ek siddhaant diya. unhonne is siddhaant ko " e nyoo kemikal philosaphee " naamak patr mein prakaashit kiya daltons atomich thaiory

Dalton's Atomic Theory


 san 1808 mein jon daaltan naam ke british skool adhyaapak ne paramaanu kee vyaakhya karane ke lie ek siddhaant diya. yah paramaanu siddhaant raasaayanik sanyojan, dravyamaan sanrakshan aur nishchit anupaat ke niyamon ke aadhaar par diya gaya tha. daaltan paramaanu siddhaant ke mataanusaar paramaanuon ke avibhaajy kanon se bana hain. lekin yah mat baad mein asveekaar ho gaya. kisee bhee tatv ke sabhee paramaanuon ke gun dravyamaan sahit samaan hote hai. kyonki kisee tatv ke sabhee paramaanuon ka dravyamaan samaan hota hain. jabaki vibhinn tatvon ke paramaanuon ka alag-alag dravyamaan hota hain.jinhen "aaisotop " ke roop mein jaana jaata hai., lekin ek tatv ke aaisotop mein samaan raasaayanik gun hote hain. vibhinn tatvon ke paramaanu yaugikon ko banaane ke lie nishchit anupaat mein sanyojit hote hain. raasaayanik abhikriyaon mein paramaanu keval punarjeevit hote hain unamen raasaayanik abhikriyaen ke dvaara na to banaaya ja sakata hai, na nasht kiya ja sakata hai. ek tatv ke paramaanu aakaar, dravyamaan aur bhautik gun samaan hain. lekin do vibhinn tatvon ke paramaanu dravyamaan,aakaar bhautik gunon mein bhinn hote hain. daaltan ne paramaanu siddhaant dvaara bataaya ki paanee alag-alag anapaaton mein avashoshit karata hain. udaaharan :- paanee kaarban daee oksaid ko avashoshit karane kee tulana mein kaheen adhik behatar hain. daaltan ne yah anumaan lagaaya ki yah gaison ke sambandhit kanon ke dravyamaan aur jatilata mein antar ke kaaran tha . darasal, kaarban daee oksaid ke anu (cho2) naitrojan anuon (n2 ) se bhaaree aur bade hote hain. daaltan ne prastaavit kiya ki pratyek raasaayanik tatv ek ekal,adviteey prakaar ke paramaanuon se bana hain. 

 

डाल्टन के परमाणु सिद्धांत की कमियाँ

  • paramaanu avibhaajy nahin hain.
  •  ek paramaanu ke roop mein proteen,nyootron aur ilektron mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakata hain.
  •  paramaanu ek raasaayanik pratikriya mein bhaag lene vaala sabase chhota kan hota hain. daaltan paramaanu siddhaant ke anusaar,ek tatv ke paramaanu aakaar, dravyamaan aur bhautik gun samaan hain. 
  • lekin kaee tatvon ke paramaanu apane ghanatv or aur dravyamaan mein bhinn hote hai. 
  • vibhinn dravyamaan vaale in paramaanuon ko samasthaanik ke roop mein jaana jaata hai udaaharan :- kloreen (chl) mein 35aur 37 kee sankhya mein 2 samasthaanik hote hain.
  • daaltan,paramaanu siddhaant ke anusaar do vibhinn tatvon ke paramaanu dravyamaan,aakaar bhautik gunon mein bhinn hote hain. udaaharan :- aargan (ar) aur kailshiyam (ch) ka paramaanu dravyamaan 40 amu hain. jab alag-alag tatvon ke paramaanu (do ya do se adhik tatvon ke paramaanu) anupaat mein sanyojit hote hai. to hamen raasaayanik yaugik milate hain.
  •  lekin jatil kaarbanik yaugikon (chaarakol, grephait aur daayamand) ke gunon ke antar samajhaane mein viphal rahata hain. daaltan ke paramaanu siddhaant ke anusaar paramaanu ek paramaanu ka sabase chhota hissa hai jo raasaayanik pratikriya mein bhaag le sakata hain. daaltan paramaanu siddhaant aadhunik kvaantam yaantrikee aur paramaanu siddhaanton ke lie aadhaar banata hain. 

Dalton's Atomic Theory of some important facts


  •  pratyek padaarth chhote chhote kanon se milakar banata hai, jise paramaanu (paramaanu) kahate hain. 
  • paramaanu avibhaajy kan hote hain. 
  • ek tatv ke sabhee paramaanu samaan dravyamaan bhaar, aakaar va raasaayanik gunadharmon mein samaan hote hain. 
  • bhinn bhinn tatvon ke paramaanu bhaar, aakaar va raasaayanik gunadharmon mein bhinn bhinn hote hain.
  •  alag alag tatvon ke paramaanu sadaiv chhotee chhotee poorn sankhyaon ke saral anupaat mein sanyog kar yaugik banaate hain. 
  • raasaayanik abhikriyaon mein paramaanu keval punarjeevit hote hain unamen raasaayanik abhikriyaen ke dvaara na to banaaya ja sakata hai, na nasht kiya ja sakata hai
Dalton's Atomic Theory Dalton's Atomic Theory Reviewed by shirswastudy on March 23, 2019 Rating: 5

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